Preheat oven to 350 degrees. Grease a 12-inch cast-iron skillet and set aside.
In a large bowl, whisk together the flour, cocoa powder, baking soda and salt. Set aside.
In the bowl of a standing mixer, cream the butter and sugar for 3 - 5 minutes, on medium speed, until light and creamy.
Stop to scrape down the sides of the bowl and add the vanilla bean paste. Continue mixing at medium speed.
Add the eggs one at a time, mixing until fully incorporated.
Reduce speed to low and slowly add the flour mixture until just incorporated.
Add the chocolate chips and mix until combined.
Transfer dough to the cast-iron skillet and spread evenly. Top with the caramels.
Bake for 30 minutes or until the cookie is done in the middle and the edges slightly crisp. Do not over bake!